THE IMPORTANCE OF STEM EDUCATION IN MIDDLE SCHOOL
STEM Education In Middle School Is Key
The importance of STEM education in middle school is tough to overstate. Our nation’s top leaders and researchers have repeatedly emphasized that if America wishes to remain competitive in the global economy it must produce more professionals with college degrees in STEM. We are woefully behind China and India in the amount of STEM students we currently have, and the reason for that is partially to do with poor STEM education in middle school.
AIS has been looking to thwart this potential economic disaster by establishing the AIS PREP program, our STEM summer school for Native American middle schoolers. STEM education in middle school is especially important for the Native American population because they have the highest high school dropout rate in the nation. And the number one reason that students drop out of high school is because they lack the foundational education in their elementary and middle school years necessary to succeed in high school. By creating the AIS PREP program our goal is to create better high school graduation rates among Native Americans, and improve the amount of Native Americans pursuing STEM degrees.
America Needs STEM Graduates
Reports from the Bureau of Labor Statistics from 2005 and 2010 projected that the U.S. will have difficulty producing enough professionals with Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) training in order to fill careers that will become vacant. This could have long term effects not just for our economy, but for our national security as well. If we don’t have enough Americans trained in science and engineering then we face a potential future where we won’t have the trained military personnel necessary to operate and develop current and future defense systems in which America still leads, such as cyber, artificial intelligence, quantum research, and even nanotechnology – all areas where our global competitors are pushing hard to overtake us. – Forbes
“The leading competitor is China, whose political leadership understands only too well how important STEM leadership is for global leadership. The World Economic Forum calculates that China had at least 4.7 million recent STEM grads as of 2016; India had 2.6 million as of 2017; the U.S. pulls in at third at 568,000. That puts us about equal with India for STEM grads per population (1:516 ratio for Indians and 1:573 for Americans); but well behind China’s 1:293 ratio. China has also mastered the science of sending their students to foreign universities to build their knowledge base in crucial STEM areas, who then head back to China to become foot soldiers in the battle for high-tech supremacy. And a key training ground for those students are America’s best colleges and universities. Last year, for example, 62 percent of all international students in US colleges and universities were in science and engineering fields. Almost seventy percent of those were from either India or China.” – Forbes
Why We Aren’t Producing Enough
Why is America having difficulty producing enough STEM graduates to fill our economic need? It comes down to three points: The baby boomer generation is far larger than the following generations so there are more vacancies opening up due to retirements than can be filled, students are losing interest in STEM subjects, and the current educational system is ill equipped to keep up with the often rapid fire developments in STEM. The good news is that evidence suggests that interventions can be done, both to improve student favorability of STEM subjects and to raise their STEM skills and aptitude.
“Using National Educational Longitudinal Study data, Tai et. al. (2006) found that middle schoolers who indicate they are interested in pursuing a career in science were three times more likely to graduate with a science degree, making career aspirations during middle school an important predictor for STEM professions. In addition, psychological research tells us that adolescence is a time when students are exploring new things and furthering their sense of identity in relation to future plans (Eccles, Barber, Stone, & Hunt, 2003).” – International Journal of Environmental & Science Education
AIS PREP Is Turning This Around In Native Communities
The AIS PREP program takes full advantage of this finding by having students attend daily career awareness lectures and weekly science fields trips during the three year summer school. By introducing students to a myriad of STEM professionals and giving them an up close look at what their jobs entail, students are introduced to a wide variety of careers that they weren’t aware of before as being available to them. As a result, many of our students who previously only had ambitions to become basketball stars, now say that they want to pursue medicine, dentistry, or engineering.
To raise students’ skills and aptitude in STEM subjects, AIS PREP holds daily classes that are hands on and immersive, with regular science activities to fully engage the students. The end result is that students dramatically raise their test scores and perform better during the school year. This is especially important for Native American students because they have the lowest test scores in STEM subjects of any group. In the 2014 Native Youth Report from the Executive Office of the President it stated that “Twenty-two percent of Native fourth graders and 17 percent of Native eighth graders scored at the ‘proficient’ or ‘advanced’ levels in math in 2011. Nationally, 40 percent of fourth graders and 35 percent of eighth graders scored in this range. This reflects a profound gap in primary and secondary academic achievement.”
According to Business Insider, the #1 reason students drop out of school is because they’re failing too many classes. As students become more comfortable in STEM subjects and gain better problem solving and reasoning skills through our curriculum, the likelihood of them failing classes and dropping out of high school goes down. This is evidenced by the success of the seminal TexPREP upon which our curriculum is based. At TexPREP 90% of their students graduate high school and continue on to college.
In today’s technology-driven world, America needs to see a sharp increase in STEM graduates. If we hope to be able to produce enough qualified STEM professionals to fill the need, providing students with both exposure and career training in STEM during the middle school years is a must.
Student Highlight May 2020
My name is Kaitlynn Lynch and I am an enrolled member of the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe located in Eagle Butte, SD. At age 6, I was adopted into a loving family and grew up off the reservation in Rapid City, SD. Although my adopted dad is an enrolled member of the Chippewa Sault Ste. Marie Tribe, I was not raised traditionally and lacked exposure to my culture as a child. As a result, I sought out my heritage and biological family in my early teens and eventually moved to live with an aunt on the reservation. During the year that I lived there, I learned about my culture, history, traditions, language, and the hardships and struggles of the people. I was born into a beautiful culture and was blessed with the gift of opportunity to build a life off the reservation. I believe there is a reason I’ve been given the life I was given and I know that the blessings I’ve had were always meant for more than just myself. I have the knowledge, passion, and ability to help people reach their full potential and live their best life and it’s in my plan to do that.
Until recently, I have always struggled with schoolwork. I was diagnosed with ADHD as a young child and my parents did their best to help me. Whether it was with medication, private tutoring sessions, extra time on tests; I was always a C/D student. Life got more difficult for me as I transferred from a private middle school to a public high school. I struggled to fit in and I felt I had no place within my peers. Growing up with a lack of knowledge of my culture hit me especially hard when I transferred from a mostly white school, to a culturally diverse high school. I desperately wanted to fit in with my native peers and be accepted, but I was still seen as an outcast. At the time, I lacked the maturity to find my own path and the guidance needed to bridge the gap between the two worlds I lived in. Eventually, I dropped out of high school and moved to the reservation to discover myself, and find my identity. With the support of my family, I earned my high school diploma at Eagle Butte High School and experienced life on the reservation. I have seen the hurt and the anger, the lack of opportunity for the people from my small community. I have also felt the anguish and the silence of those who do not have the capability or the guiding hand to help themselves change their destiny. I want to be that guiding hand and be an inspiration for anyone who has struggled with life and finding where they belong. I have overcome many obstacles to get where I am today, and I’m proud of my accomplishments.
I am currently a student at Central New Mexico Community College. I plan on graduating the summer of 2020 with an AA in Sociology. It’s my personal goal to make the Dean’s List at the end of this term and the following 2 semesters I have left at CNM Community College. I was inducted into the Phi Theta Kappa Honor Society this fall and I plan on maintaining my high GPA. After obtaining my Associates Degree, I want to transfer to the University of New Mexico and pursue my education by earning a Bachelor’s Degree and eventually attending the UNM law program. It is my intent to become a lawyer, so I can have the knowledge to legally advise or help people. I know that my community is in need of tribal attorneys and I want to fulfill that need with my communication skills and continued education.
Being a full-time mother and a full-time student can be difficult at times. I’ve struggled in the past with time management and the motivation to pursue my education. Today, I am proud of myself for the hard work I’ve put into my higher education, especially during this past year. In April of 2018, my family became homeless when we moved to Albuquerque, NM. We lived in our car and then a homeless shelter. With the support and help from community resources, I was able to secure housing for my family and enroll in college. I’ve maintained a 4.0 GPA and have been able to provide my family with the stability we need to live our best lives. I dedicate my extra time to my academic studies, volunteering in my community, and being an actively involved parent in my children’s lives. Receiving this scholarship has been a blessing to my family because it gave us financial security during the semester. I used the money to add to my emergency savings and to pay ahead on my rent. This scholarship has relieved my financial stress and allows me to focus on classes, family, and giving back to my community.
April 2020 Newsletter Student Highlights
Navajo, Hunkpapa Lakota, and Sisseton Wahpeton Dakota
Science, Technology, and Society – Stanford
Jade comes from Window Rock, Arizona, and is minoring in Medical Anthropology on the Pre-Med track. She is the Co-Chair for the Stanford Powwow and is the Vice President of the Stanford AISES Chapter. Jade is also a research assistant in the OB/GYN Department at the Stanford Hospital under the Winn Research Lab. Recently she did a service trip to Nepal and is a trained EMT. After she obtains her OBGYN or Family Medicine license, Jade wants to go back and work on Native reservations in order to help her community.
Biology – University of New Mexico
Andrew grew up in Albuquerque, New Mexico and is minoring in sociology and chemistry. He maintains a high GPA and is on the Dean’s List. He is pursuing a biology degree with the hopes of applying to and entering medical school sometime in the near future in order study and practice neurosurgery. He knows this is a lofty goal because so few Native Americans attend medical school, but he is confident that his academic abilities and work ethic will carry him toward his goal, as are we.
Life In the Wake of a Pandemic – Shandiin’s Story
I’m a student here at Brigham Young University Hawaii. This was my last semester and on April 18th, I finally graduated with my Business Management – Finance Bachelor’s.
In the middle of the semester classes were canceled on campus. The following week we resumed with all of our classes being online. For myself it was it was extremely hard to focus on assignments the rest of that week. BYU Hawaii was one of the first colleges to cancel classes and cancel graduation in the same day. My family had already planned to fly out to Hawaii to celebrate my graduation. It was extremely hard for me to continue to stay focused in my last semester. I was able to get through it and finish out this past semester strong.
But it’s been difficult not to worry about my family. All I can do is watch from afar. Even if I could go home, I wouldn’t be able to visit them because they have a lot of underlying health conditions or they are much older. Distancing right now is really important so that our people are not spreading the virus. Many are being sent to the hospital and others lose their lives. There is not a day that goes by when I don’t think of my family and when I can see them again.
Also being here at BYU Hawaii, I was seeing how it was affecting students from so many other countries. I had a lot of friends who had to leave within a week to get home to their countries before they closed. Many of them didn’t make it home because their countries had already closed for entry. It was affecting their ability to be able to finish school at the same time. Many are stuck here still in Hawaii until further notice.
Looking back on this last semester, if I did not receive the American Indian services scholarship it would have been hard for me to sustain myself till the end of the semester. This one scholarship was able to give me peace of mind that I would have a roof over my head until graduation. I think that it is important to know that this scholarship program has helped me this semester. That going into the next semester I want others to continue on with their education and graduate from college. It is the best feeling knowing that you accomplished your goals and nothing can stand in the way of our educational pursuits.
– Shandiin White, Navajo
Life In the Wake of a Pandemic – Manuel’s Advice
I am Manuel Felix and I was awarded the AIS Scholarship for my 2016 fall school year at Arizona State University. After graduation with my degree in communication and technical writing, I secured a job with Desert Diamond Casino where I work in the surveillance department. I utilize my education received from ASU on a daily basis. I write and edit surveillance training manuals. I oversee the surveillance department and edit surveillance officers’ incident reports. American Indian Services, thank you again for believing in me while I pursued my dreams of higher education.
I want to share my thoughts with you about the mental, spiritual, physical, and emotional healing that can be achieved though riding your bicycle. These are all things that we need during this COVID-19 crisis. Throughout the four year journey while attending ASU, I rode my bicycle around town. Everywhere I needed to go was traveled by bike in the blistering heat, rain, sunshine, and high winds. I commuted through it all. Navigating through the city on my bicycle proved to be rewarding. After graduation in 2017 I still continue to get everywhere I need to go by bicycle.
I know what you’re thinking? Ride a bicycle? No way! It’s dangerous, it’s too far, it’s not for me. People have become car dependent. “For a lot of people a car means freedom and social status, but if a city provides you no choice but to drive, a car isn’t freedom, it’s dependence. If you have no choice but to drive for every trip, it’s not your fault. Your city has failed.” says Janette Sadik-Khan. Khan, Director for New York City’s Department of Transporting who is also an avid cyclist.
Riding your bicycle everywhere you need to go will give you a sense of freedom. Riding your bicycle for short trips will save on gas money, and wear and tear on your vehicle. While implementing new riding habits, you will work on the physical benefits of cardio. You will also gain a sense of self-pride, knowing that you are getting the exercise that your body needs.
Not only will this prove beneficial to personal needs, riding your bicycle helps worldwide. Our carbon footprint is greatly reduced by not commuting by vehicle. No carbon emissions are released while riding your bicycle. Just power, imagination, and sweat are needed to power the bicycle.
Mental, spiritual, physical and emotional healing is obtainable while replacing the vehicle to navigate the area you live in by bicycle. Mental healing in the sense of receiving a quiet mind from riding, nothing but you and the open air to gather your thoughts, explore ideas, and obtain inner peace. We all need time for ourselves and to decompress in our own ways as we’re cooped up at home right now. I have found that when I feel blue or on edge, taking that bicycle ride helps out. Alone time develops incredible knowledge of self in these hard times that we all must face. Remember that mental, spiritual, physical and emotional healing can all be obtained by riding your bicycle during this Covid-19 crisis.
Life In the Wake of a Pandemic – Haley’s Story
My name is Haley Jordan Begay, and I am a senior at Indiana University studying sports broadcast journalism and Spanish. My goal is to become a sideline reporter for ESPN or Fox Sports.
I am extremely dedicated. I often wake up early at my Bloomington apartment, walk two miles to school (I use this as exercise), and sit in class all day until my writing internship begins later in the afternoon. I sign up for every project that I’m offered whether that be covering a Little 500 bike team planning for their big race, starting my own women’s media organization on campus or participating in worship with a student-run church group called FCA.
My days were often stressful and filled with anxiety because I put an immense amount of pressure on myself to succeed. I never said no or took a break from school and media-related activities. Then, the corona virus hit.
At first, I thought the virus replicated the swine flu and was just unpleasant and only deadly for a small portion of people. However, I was still cautious and carried tons of hand sanitizer. I canceled my spring break trip. All of my activities were getting canceled left and right including sideline reporting for the Big Ten Network.
Everything that made me happy was disappearing. Then school was officially moved to e-learning. At first, I wasn’t too mad about this change because my life was so fast paced that I actually wanted a break from my jam-packed days. But then boredom quickly settled in. I missed my professors, friends, sideline reporting and making a difference on campus through Jesus Christ’s love.
After all of this hit, I truly realized that being busy is a great thing, and I shouldn’t have taken it for granted. All those activities I was involved in did make me happy even though I worried I wouldn’t be able to get them all done. However, I always did, and now I miss that feeling of having too much to do.
I haven’t seen another human face in person (other than my family) in over a month. I am taking social distancing very seriously so that everyone can get back to their normal lives. As I have been sitting home doing my online classes and job, another nightmare struck; my mother’s brain cancer returned.
My mom was diagnosed with brain cancer almost three years ago and beat it pretty quick! She made chemo and radiation seem easy, and her MRI scans always came back clear. But now, it’s back, and I am truly scared. If corona were to hit the world at any time, I’m glad it’s now because I am able to be home with my mom.
She is with her whole family under one roof where she is being kept busy doing her regular momma duties and spending time with us. She and I have been binge watching our favorite reality TV shows, staying up until 1 a.m. laughing and taking time to appreciate life.
I am certain my momma will beat this cancer again. I am also certain that this deadly virus will make everyone better in the long run. We will appreciate the stress, the crazy and the time we get to spend seeing friends face to face when we return to “real life.”
I’d like to thank my Native American and AIS community for the continuous financial support that has propelled my broadcasting career and for keeping in touch with their students. I pray for your safety, health and to enjoy the boredom a little more today.
– Haley Jordan Begay, Cherokee
An influx of students need funding, AIS is providing it
In times of crisis, the vulnerable are always the hardest hit. Unfortunately, the remote parts of our country where many Native Americans live aren’t immune to the reach of COVID-19. As of this writing on April 20th, the Navajo Nation has an infection rate per capita that is higher than all but 2 U.S. states. Tribal elders, who serve as community knowledge keepers, are more likely to die of the virus because of high rates of heart disease and diabetes among elderly Native Americans. Only 51.3% of Native American households have health insurance, and on remote tribal lands adequate health care is hard to find. On some reservations it’s estimated that only 40% of homes have running water, making the necessary hygiene to combat the virus difficult.
This is a bleak picture but the Native people are doing everything they can to protect their communities. The Lummi Tribe acted quickly and opened up a pioneering field hospital to help treat the sick in their area, and they called for social distancing measures well before the rest of the nation. The Navajo Nation has ordered rapid test kits to help contain the virus. The Yurok Tribe created an Incident Command Team to navigate the needs of their people. Many tribes declared a state of emergency early on in order to secure funding and prepare their healthcare facilities, and health clinics have devoted extra resources to COVID-19 patients.
Most helpful of all, the tribes negotiated $10 billion in aid from the CARES stimulus package, $8 billion of which will go toward reimbursing tribes for coronavirus expenses already incurred. The remainder will go toward better equipping tribal health services, improving emergency response times on tribal lands, providing economic relief for tribal members, and food delivery to the elderly and low-income families. But this leaves our scholarship recipients who are facing unique challenges to navigate the social effects of this virus themselves.
Universities have closed campuses and moved their courses online. Many students have been forced out of their dorms, where computers and high speed internet access were readily available, to go back to their family homes on remote tribal lands where 47% of homes lack these essential resources to finish their courses. This means that students who can’t afford to buy a computer and an internet connection will have to either attempt to complete their coursework on their smart phones, or drop out.
In order to prevent students from dropping out and to address the larger than usual amount of applications we are receiving, we have extended our spring and summer scholarship deadlines to May 1st. When students have tuition funding it frees them up to purchase necessary things like books and computers in order to be successful in their studies – not to mention the basics like food, clothing, and housing. American Indian Services is well situated to weather this storm and we will do everything in our power to continue providing this aid to Native American students.
We have been able to transition our office staff to working from home without any interruption in our scholarship distribution schedule. Our gala gave us a highly successful start to our fundraising this year. We raised $880,362, which is 31% of our scholarship program’s expenses for the year, and we have secured several other grants and donations. This means that the scholarship program will be able to stay robust in the face of these trying times. We are resilient and we will continue to adapt as needed. You can count on us to keep serving Native Americans at a time when they need us most.
Student Highlight April 2020
Being born and raised in Albuquerque, New Mexico and participating in my Pueblo traditions in Cochiti, New Mexico, I am thankful that I am apart of these two very distinct communities. I am pursuing an education that will create positive change in both communities. As an American Indian, I am a part of the Pueblo of Cochiti, Pueblo of Jemez, and Diné. As a first-generation student I call the University of New Mexico my home in earning a Bachelor of Science in Population Health and a minor in Psychology. I am proud to be a part of the 2nd of its kind, College of Population Health in the United States.
I first became interested in Population Health my sophomore year of college when I discovered that a majority of healthcare is reactive, and I wanted to learn how to take a more proactive approach to prevent illnesses and diseases. Population Health consists of the multidisciplinary study of health, illness, and disability. We learn about the societal, behavioral, and organizational causes of health and disease and explore the ways to reduce health disparities. In my classes I examine policies, health systems, and public health practices that can curb health risks in communities and large populations.
My motivations to earn an undergraduate degree in Population Health began with my professional aspirations to better my American Indian community. I intend to conduct research and help develop preventive programs to reduce diabetes with the Albuquerque Area Southwest Tribal Epidemiology Center (AASTEC) as my senior capstone project in the Spring of 2020. After graduation, I plan to attend graduate school to earn an MPH and/or Master of Social Work with an American Indian Concentration. Schools I am interested in applying to are the Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis which develops the knowledge and skills to serve Native American communities by understanding the extent, effects, and causes of issues facing Native peoples then evaluating and implementing the best practices with cultural competencies in mind. Other schools I intend on applying to are North Dakota State University with the American Indian Concentration and the Bloomberg School of Public Health at Johns Hopkins.
In the future, I am eager to develop a healthcare system that increases the access of healthcare services on Southwestern reservations. According to the Navajo Area Indian Health Service (NAIHS), the department delivers health services to over 244,000 American Indians on the largest Indian reservation in the U.S. The Navajo Nation covers more than 25,000 contiguous square miles where NAIHS has a total of 222 inpatient hospital beds at only four hospitals. The issue of lack of healthcare access for Native Americans has geared me towards an educational plan to pursue a career in public community health. The societal problem I am planning to address is the health disparities of American Indians by first working with the Albuquerque Area Indian Health Board by becoming a project director after I finish my graduate program. Then, I intend pursing a more significant role in regional planning and public service. I believe in advocating and serving disadvantaged Indigenous people using a holistic framework consisting of emotional, mental, physical, and spiritual well-being. Working in public service I would be the voice representing our people on director boards and on large scale government committees.
I am passionate that I will be able to take what I learn in my degree now, capstone project and graduate program in the future, and apply it in regional Indigenous and American Indian communities to reduce health disparities and increase access to healthcare services. I am proud to state that I am a 2019 Udall Scholar for Native American Heath care. I have taken the initiative to prepare for my future educational plans and career goals by taking on two internships currently to begin addressing issues that face American Indians and public health. I am the first intern for the College Horizons Scholars Program to develop student success programming for Native students on campus and help retention rates and set them up for their future and lead them to graduate programs. Secondly, I have become a Future Community Leader for the Center for Social Sustainable Systems Leadership Institute. I have currently taken a proactive role in my community to prepare and execute an action plan aimed at addressing and understanding water, land, health disparities, and social justice issues affecting New Mexican Communities. As part of my project publication I am focusing on legislation and policy development to sustain our local farmers, acequias, and to ensure that water is available to our Pueblos south of Albuquerque.
Receiving financial aid has equipped me to focus on my plans and goals for graduate school and my career which I am eager to begin. I have a focused plan to assist Indigenous communities in the future, and I am determined to reduce health disparities and increase access on reservations while preserving our cultural traditions. This funding is helping provide me the education to support my community and pave the way for me to give back to future generations, so they have the same amazing opportunities as me.
Student Highlight February 2020
My name is Terra Goss and I’m an enrolled member of the Three Affiliated Tribes of New Town, North Dakota. I was born on the Blackfeet Reservation in Browning, Montana, but was raised in Killeen, Texas. I currently reside in Great Falls, Montana where I attend the Great Falls College Montana State University.
I’m majoring in License Addiction Counseling, because there is such a high job demand in this field on Native American Reservations. I’d like to work on different reservations as a Chemical Dependency Counselor and try to educate as many people as possible about drugs and alcohol.
Since, I have started school in the fall semester 2018 I have involved myself in The Native American group on campus and was voted the president of the group late August 2018. I will not say that my credentials will blow the competition out of the water or that I have some exceptionally rare skill that makes me the best candidate, but I do have a decent GPA, I have done some volunteer work at the local shelter, and I’m currently looking for an on-campus job.
What sets me apart, and what I think is unique and special about me, is my combination of work ethic and my drive to succeed. Doing the Native group, volunteer work and getting my studies done have led me to develop a strong work ethic and strong ability to prioritize, manage my time, and make sure that I always get my school work done on time. I’m always willing to go above and beyond to do a better job. I believe what I am accomplishing now will help me in the future, when a difficult situation arises I will be prepared to excel and work hard for success. College is a tough road and my drive and perseverance to continue accomplishing have, and will lead me to success.
– Terra Goss
Student Highlight January 2020
Hello, my name is Kodiak Ronald Cleveland. I am a 27 year old enrolled Hoocąk (Ho-Chunk) tribal member, father, husband, and psychology student attending Fort Lewis College in Durango, Colorado. Ever since I was a young man, I knew I would pursue college in order to advance my career. However, I did not know that out of my six siblings, being the second youngest sibling of them all (out of seven of us, total), I am most likely to be the first to graduate and earn a college degree.
I grew up in Black River Falls, Wisconsin, and learned my Hoocąk language, heritage and cultural ways from elders in my Hoocąk community. I have carried such knowledge with me as I have transitioned from being a young man, to a husband, and to being a father to my toddler son who is soon to be three this upcoming January. I have encountered much trauma in my life and have born witness to loved ones who have struggled with various health conditions, substance abuse addictions, and mental health disorders. Only after I had experienced traveling and working in various places and roles, did I begin to realize the truth of what matters most to me: holistic mental health well-being. It is difficult to accomplish healthy mental well-being, especially in this day and age of overwhelming stimuli and environmental impacts. Because of such barriers to positive and healthy mental well-being, I recognize the need for the following professions: social work, family counseling, marriage counseling, substance abuse rehabilitation, counseling for veterans, and child psychologists. Above mentioned professions are united in that they require a solid foundation in psychology and sociology which explains my pursuit of a bachelor’s degree in psychology from a Liberal Arts college.
I anticipate contributing back to Native American communities and the border-towns surrounding such communities. As I pursue my career in psychology, I balance and support my family by encouraging my wife to continue her collegiate studies, and my son to have the best upbringing I can provide him, as he is a young Hoocąk who I am sure will one day strive to do great things, as well.
Kodiak Ronald Cleveland